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Floyd and Maidana Will Do USADA Testing

BY Michael Woods ON July 14, 2014
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Some of you fight fans care about PED testing, and others among you assume all the good ones are dirty, so who cares.

For the ones who do care, Floyd Mayweather put out there today, at his NYC presser, that he and foe Marcos Maidana will indeed do stringent pre-fight testing prior to their Sept. 13 rematch, to be shown on Showtime PPV. In this video shot by Tha Boxing Voice, Floyd said that, "There's always drug testing. Floyd Mayweather is the face of boxing, and it's all about cleaning the sport up. I want to be in a very, very clean and healthy sport, and I always want to be on an even playing field."

They will be using USADA, which Floyd termed "the best."

For the record, there you go...

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Comment on this article

stormcentre says:

Excellent - now there is no chance either guy is using/cycling.

Nothing gets past a (well written) USADA contract.

Radam G says:

USADA is weak and heavily a charity case of Money May. He has been USADA's leading donator for years. And just to protect him and his constantly dirty stable of pugs, USADA moved its ratio from 4 to 1 to 6 to 1. And in rear cases 9 to 1.

Why doesn't Money May use VADA or WADA? And their still 4-to-1 ratio. Because he is a darn humbug. Though a great one who can make you believe that he has a flying magic rug. Holla!

The Shadow says:

usada is weak and heavily a charity case of money may. He has been usada's leading donator for years. And just to protect him and his constantly dirty stable of pugs, usada moved its ratio from 4 to 1 to 6 to 1. And in rear cases 9 to 1.

Why doesn't money may use vada or wada? And their still 4-to-1 ratio. Because he is a darn humbug. Though a great one who can make you believe that he has a flying magic rug. Holla!



WADA is the same as USADA.
Radam G says:

WADA is the same as USADA.


WADA is the World Anti-doping association that set the rules and ratio for Olympic-style testing. USADA is the corruted United States Anti-Drug Association. Holla!

Radam G says:

BTW, there mucho quacks around the game peddling masking agents that USADA avoid and ignore. Man, the game is shady, sneaky, sleazy and seedy. Team Money May is good at sideshows and publicity stunts. Holla!

danmason1448 says:

In regards to being anti-USADA, many are just repeating inaccurate talking points pushed out by unprofessional bloggers, victor conte (who USADA put in jail), or both who have an odd and suspicious pro-vada angle (while of course having no connection at all to VADA.)

USADA is th national anti-doping organization in the United States. They have a 14 million dollar budget including 75% from the federal governemnt, and operated for a decade before any involvement with Pro Boxing or Mayweather. They do all of the testing for the United States Olympic Committee and all sport national governing bodies. They've taken down very popular and well-liked athletes including Marion, Jones, Lance Armstrong, and 100's of others, yet they are going to protect Mayweather? Why didn't they just take a bribe from Armstrong. It would have been way easier and more profitable than going after a national hero and spending huge amounts of $$$ in court. The argument just doesn't hold water.The organization is also a signatory of the World Anti-Doping Code, which means they follow all WADA standards.

To compare these two organizations is really just ridiculous and shows a lack of understanding. You can't even find an address of phone number on VADA's website. They primarily exist in social media and do a handful of tests a year. They have 0 employees according to their own 990 tax form. I respect what VADA is trying to do, but to put down one of the most well-resourced, most experienced agencies in the world, in hopes of growing a shoe-string operation in VADA for personal interest is not good for the sport or anyone else.

Do the research yourself and you will see. Go to both organizations websites' and you will see. Read inaccurate boxing blogs and its a different story.

stormcentre says:

In regards to being anti-USADA, many are just repeating inaccurate talking points pushed out by unprofessional bloggers, victor conte (who USADA put in jail), or both who have an odd and suspicious pro-vada angle (while of course having no connection at all to VADA.)

USADA is th national anti-doping organization in the United States. They have a 14 million dollar budget including 75% from the federal governemnt, and operated for a decade before any involvement with Pro Boxing or Mayweather. They do all of the testing for the United States Olympic Committee and all sport national governing bodies. They've taken down very popular and well-liked athletes including Marion, Jones, Lance Armstrong, and 100's of others, yet they are going to protect Mayweather? Why didn't they just take a bribe from Armstrong. It would have been way easier and more profitable than going after a national hero and spending huge amounts of $$$ in court. The argument just doesn't hold water.The organization is also a signatory of the World Anti-Doping Code, which means they follow all WADA standards.

To compare these two organizations is really just ridiculous and shows a lack of understanding. You can't even find an address of phone number on VADA's website. They primarily exist in social media and do a handful of tests a year. They have 0 employees according to their own 990 tax form. I respect what VADA is trying to do, but to put down one of the most well-resourced, most experienced agencies in the world, in hopes of growing a shoe-string operation in VADA for personal interest is not good for the sport or anyone else.

Do the research yourself and you will see. Go to both organizations websites' and you will see. Read inaccurate boxing blogs and its a different story.



OK, then . . . let me ask this?

How long you been in and/or connected to the boxing game and testing?

Radam G says:

In regards to being anti-USADA, many are just repeating inaccurate talking points pushed out by unprofessional bloggers, victor conte (who USADA put in jail), or both who have an odd and suspicious pro-vada angle (while of course having no connection at all to VADA.)

USADA is th national anti-doping organization in the United States. They have a 14 million dollar budget including 75% from the federal governemnt, and operated for a decade before any involvement with Pro Boxing or Mayweather. They do all of the testing for the United States Olympic Committee and all sport national governing bodies. They've taken down very popular and well-liked athletes including Marion, Jones, Lance Armstrong, and 100's of others, yet they are going to protect Mayweather? Why didn't they just take a bribe from Armstrong. It would have been way easier and more profitable than going after a national hero and spending huge amounts of $$$ in court. The argument just doesn't hold water.The organization is also a signatory of the World Anti-Doping Code, which means they follow all WADA standards.

To compare these two organizations is really just ridiculous and shows a lack of understanding. You can't even find an address of phone number on VADA's website. They primarily exist in social media and do a handful of tests a year. They have 0 employees according to their own 990 tax form. I respect what VADA is trying to do, but to put down one of the most well-resourced, most experienced agencies in the world, in hopes of growing a shoe-string operation in VADA for personal interest is not good for the sport or anyone else.

Do the research yourself and you will see. Go to both organizations websites' and you will see. Read inaccurate boxing blogs and its a different story.


Looka' here! Looka' here! Looka here! NONSENSE!

The United States is a signatory of the United Nations. But violates every darn codes of the UN every day of the week and umpteen times on Sunday.

USADA is notorious for protecting and not catching American super-elite athletes. These athletes always get caught when they are performing in Europe, Tokyo and/or Sydney, Australia. And USADA super double protected Marion Jones. She turned her own self in because of love T-K-O breakups and falling outs with her boyfriend and then her husband. My friends, there are public information and FOI papers everywhere.

It has been the popular TV magazine "60 Minutes" that confronted Carl Lewis and other U.S. athletes for being dirty several years after the fact because of USADA "insiders" covering up of tests.

USADA is no different from the corruption of the U.S. Gov that has the largest budget on the globe, but has corrupted "fix it" individuals that will take payola, payouts and pay offs to do da do to get any elite sport person through.

Nobody is jiving and conniving here. We are in a check-this, check-that atmosphere. And not FULL of inattention blindness and leg-shaking fear. Holla!

stormcentre says:

OK Danmason1448 . . . . unfortunately I have not seen a response from you yet.

Anyway, anyone in the sport of Boxing who's capable of genuinely wanting to do something, knows who Goodman (VADA) is and how to contact her.

The fact their outfit does a very rigorous job is why they're, superficially, seemingly less popular and/or in demand.

And, as for the mention of the Olympics and dare is say even Lance Armstrong and the implicitly duplicitous claim and/or inference "why didn't they just take a bribe from him"; that's simply hilarious.

The Olympics' reputation was (and in some sense still is) scandalous.

It was only how utterly obvious it was that competitors were doping, combined with the relatively secure knowledge of the sports persons and other staff involved in the Olympics that led to the pressure that eventually brought in more stringent testing; resulting in contractual arrangements and funding to catch the so called cheats who the Olympic organizers always feared the exposure of would destroy their brand; hence why it was tolerated for so long.

Only enormous public pressure, embarrassment, and shame brought the Olympic organizers to meaningfully test.

Back to Armstrong; if anyone needs a revisionists insight to how, and how long, Lance managed to fool all the authorities, testing facilities and other players; it surely must be those whom are so easily misled that they allow themselves to subscribe to the view that no-one that tests for PED's in cycling knew of Armstrong's exploits and considered both, to stay quiet and the financial and other implications as simultaneously as possible for an non-single cell organism walking this earth.

No-one experienced in this sport of boxing would even walk towards the thought that USADA are a reliable outfit to guarantee that your boxing opponent is not doping.

The amount of times I have looked across the ring at an opponent who not only appears to be in less cardiovascular stress than me after 8 or more hard rounds (my resting heart rate was 42 when in condition) - but then passed a USADA test; is laughable.

In fact, in boxing USADA is considered (even by those I know in the USA) similarly to those independent ticks of (health) approval that can be purchased for food organizations that know their products are less than spectacular where it counts.

USDA test for what they are contractually told and paid to test for, and usually the contracts and even positive results are, or can be, subject to confidentiality clauses.

Nuff said.

Oh . . good comments Radam G.

Radam G says:

On this jive-time taking of roids and PEDs, one must be clear. You get a scintilla of physical increase in performance, but a high jump in placebo effect and psychological might where you start to believe that you can Superman fight.

OMG! You may be able to get the same buzz if you come to the P-Islands and get yourself a wild thing and a San Miguel Beer. Hehehe!

Holla at this: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfxoqje1X7o.

Juicing and goosing, rubbing and bathtubbing, inhaling and smelling, injecting up into your rectum, buttering and creaming your bodeee with all "dat syet," as Pops Joy May calls roids and PEDs, are giving you more of a Beauty-and-the-Beast look. And in the sooner-before-later future you will get a heavy burden of bad health to pay.

YOU PLAY, YOU PAY! And earlier than expected -- in boot hill -- you will lay [$¡¢].

Check the record for yourself. USADA has always help the USOC with the usages of and masking of roids and PEDs.

Nowadays in the sweet science of professional pugging, USADA is not changing it stripes or spots or stop getting some payoff dough in its fake-arse gold pot, as it never did for any other sport of the O-Games.

[url]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F04etMA6bgk. Ninety percent of the U.$.athletes caught on that syet have passed USADA testing with flying colors. These darn athletes are always caught outside the U.S. mainland by drug-testing super-don't-play-dat-syet entities.

USADA and Tyrone Tygart are corrupt like its BIG BOSS -- the U.S. Gov. Holla!

danmason1448 says:

That's sort of the point that I'm making. This anti-usada sentiment only exists in the sport of Boxing. Go on twitter and see how cyclist feel about USADA and most have a favorable perception. Read what the top journalists (New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Associated Press) in the world who covered Lance Armstrong for decades have to say about USADA or what they said shortly after it all happened and there is almost no negative articles to find, other than a few people connect to Armstrong.

Look, the point is that Twe have a very well resourced, globally respected agency that could do a lot of good. Maybe they could help train VADA. But no, what do we get, we get this situation where we've actually turned too anti-doping groups, who are both trying to do good against each other for a story line. It doesn't benefit anyone.

I mean read this Tax form [url]http://990s.foundationcenter.org/990_pdf_archive/453/453516975/453516975_201212_990EZ.pdf

They have 0 employees! Their Net Assests are (negative) 23,000$! How does that work?

Goodman only works an average of 15 hours per week, according to her own form.! the other directors only work 1 hour per week on average

I appreciate what they are trying to do, but its just a concept. It is not a real organization at this point. We need a real solution!

danmason1448 says:

USADA did not exist at the time of Carl Lewis. USADA was founded in part to stop stuff like that from happening.

stormcentre says:

[QUOTE=danmason1448;58374]That's sort of the point that I'm making. This anti-usada sentiment only exists in the sport of Boxing. Go on twitter and see how cyclist feel about USADA and most have a favorable perception. Read what the top journalists (New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Associated Press) in the world who covered Lance Armstrong for decades have to say about USADA or what they said shortly after it all happened and there is almost no negative articles to find, other than a few people connect to Armstrong.

Look, the point is that Twe have a very well resourced, globally respected agency that could do a lot of good. Maybe they could help train VADA. But no, what do we get, we get this situation where we've actually turned too anti-doping groups, who are both trying to do good against each other for a story line. It doesn't benefit anyone.

I mean read this Tax form [url]http://990s.foundationcenter.org/990_pdf_archive/453/453516975/453516975_201212_990EZ.pdf

They have 0 employees! Their Net Assests are (negative) 23,000$! How does that work?

Goodman only works an average of 15 hours per week, according to her own form.! the other directors only work 1 hour per week on average

I appreciate what they are trying to do, but its just a concept. It is not a real organization at this point. We need a real solution![/QUOTE]

Oh look I probably shouldn't say this . . but it is fun - sorry just being honest.

Seems to me then, based on what you're saying, that we have a "concept" agency (VADA) with zero employees that can test for performance enhancing substances within the boxing fraternity far more rigorously than the popular USADA.

That is, of course, if you accept that a tax declaration and also the definition of an employee as being the only person that can perform functions for the organization; are good examples of a part-time business' complete operation.

I agree that VADA, as they are registered, may not earn much annual revenue.

But then neither would you if your primary focus was boxing and your testing and contractual policies towards performance enhancing substances within the boxing fraternity were the antithesis of USADA.

Still Goodman, and her contractors, are there whenever the sport is serious.

-------------------------------------

Onto EPO, blood doping and other similar performance enhancing substances, and a little bit of research.

EPO, blood doping and other similar performance enhancing substances will actually provide more than a minimal performance benefit in any sport where sustained anaerobic and aerobic fitness is required.

This is why they can be used in boxing, providing noticeable advantages in the areas of heart rate economy for a given output, recovery rate, sustaining attacks and almost anything that benefits from carrying and delivering oxygen molecules to the hemoglobin within blood, which in turn is the substance that allows blood to transport gases (like oxygen).

A lot of people don't understand how an athlete's body and muscles work and as such they can't properly grasp how PED's work and/or how an organization might effectively test for them and provide a valuable, non-manipulated, service.

Here is a starter that I wrote today for you, and apologies to those whom already know this.

Blood itself consists of plasma, platelets, and both white and red blood cells.

Of these, the red blood cells (erythrocytes) are the most significant to blood oxygenation enhancement.

As the Erythrocytes rapidly travel through the body delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.

When the blood passes through the lungs, the abovementioned oxygen molecules then have the opportunity to attach to the hemoglobin when blood traverses through the body's lung tissues, and as that happens the hemoglobin then releases oxygen into the cells.

The oxygen can offset and/or prevent the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid.

What does that mean you may ask?

Well, what it means is that the oxygen molecules, released into the human body's cells, can effectively delay the onset of muscle fatigue.

And this is what prolongs an athlete's ability to perform, just as much as it causes those with a genuine interest for safety in boxing to become alarmed; as natural fatigue serves safety in boxing more than some may care to consider.

Clearly this discussion here needs to remain relatively simple, but if there is an oxygen deficiency in the muscle the abovementioned pyruvic acid may (quicker than hoped) convert to another chemical we all know: lactic acid.

This happens even without any performance enhancing substance being present.

Large amounts of this guy (lactic acid) built up in the muscle cells is familiar to most that train for 8 or more rounds in a combat sport and it doesn’t feel too flash when your back is on the ropes and 3G - or anyone for that matter - is wailing on you.

Not in the least, as when your (pertinent) muscles have lactic acid within them above a certain threshold your arms and body will not respond to your brain’s neurological programming and/or signals as expected, as quickly and as accurately as you intend; even if you're not mentally fatigued - which can (psychologically or not) have a chicken (no pun intended) and egg relationship with the muscle fatigue I am about to describe.

Remember too - it’s the muscles in the body that also allow those with evasive and good defensive skills to stay close and within range where they can strike, whilst making the other guy miss.

So lactic acid and cardiovascular fatigue then bring dangers in boxing also, and this then becomes one area why and where performance enhancing drugs enters the philosophical realm, as one could mount the argument that taking them then makes it safer for you from a defensive standpoint. Naturally, the counter claim would be that assistance is offset by the additional danger of your opponent not experiencing muscular fatigue as early as he may have otherwise.

And in turn, that may also be countered with the argument that performance enhancing drugs usually provide the best advantage when only one boxing opponent out of two use them. And on and on the debate rages.

What's not debatable is that as the lactic acid builds up in the muscles it overflows into the bloodstream (where the abovementioned hemoglobin and attached oxygen previously came from), and from there it begins to impede muscle contraction.

This is why your arms are unable to accurately and sharply throw punches after a few hard rounds; even just on the bag.

It is the accumulation of this lactic acid, resulting from an oxygen deficiency in the cells, that is itself a major contributor to muscle fatigue.

And muscle fatigue is one of the most significant contributors to an athlete’s self (and publicly) critical performances, which therefore - and this is the nucleus of the issue - means it is also of the most significant constraints to the high performance sporting displays/entertainment that command and deliver the kinds of revenue that Money Mayweather publicly appreciates.

In simplistic terms, EPO, blood doping and other similar performance enhancing substances can noticeably prolong the onset of muscle fatigue - which, as touched on above, is the primary indicator and/or one of the most significant constraints to performance for any athlete.

In general terms blood doping allows athletes to have an advantage over their competition in a way that is not necessarily as easy to detect as it is to manufacture an excuse for having an elevated oxygen count present.

But there are many methods and approaches to achieving what blood doping sets out to do.

For example; [B]Blood Oxygenation Enhancement[/B].

This usually follows 2 main approaches with all other blood doping forms (usually) falling into a subset of these; Pure Blood Doping and Artificial Oxygen Carriers.

Each of these approaches dramatically increases an athlete's capability to deliver oxygen to blood to tissue throughout the body and therefore via the above-mentioned methods improving endurance - possibly to increase their ability to such an extent that they maybe achieve their peak athletic performance(s).

[B]Artificial Oxygen Carriers:[/B] are like illicit designer (party) drugs made for performance minded athletes.

They're purposely manufactured substances that are designed to greatly assist in oxygen transportation throughout the body.

As abovementioned, hemoglobin is the body's natural oxygen (and/or gas) carrier in human blood, and to exploit this feature (clandestine?) scientists have (with varying degrees of success) attempted to isolate hemoglobin from erythrocytes (remember erythrocytes? Above? They’re the body’s red blood cells. ) so that it can be infused directly into humans.

Why do they do that?

Well, hemoglobin carries oxygen to the muscles and the more of it the less fatigue and greater performance.

However, usually whenever the isolated hemoglobin is infused and/or "administered" in an artificial environment - such as one where Blood Doping and/or Blood Oxygenation Enhancement is taking place to increase the oxygen count - a chemical reaction takes place within the body that results in toxin production which then counteracts or constrains the entire performance enhancement axiom for reasons I won't go into here.

As I implied before, it’s complex and removing these obstacles - particularly in an undetectable way - is where the big bucks lie just as much as the laboratories that undertake this work for the underground sporting market are usually not listed in the phone book.

Recently, and I believe (but can't and don't want to prove) that Victor Conte was in some way involved in this part of the artificial oxygen carrier PED evolutionary history; a way to circumvent the aforementioned constraint and its associated chemical breakdown has given way to development of several new generations of modified hemoglobin solutions.

The latest of which involves encapsulating erythrocytes content themselves inside artificial erythrocytes “aliases” that themselves also have artificial membranes wrapped around them.

Kind of like a tunneling protocol for you IT geeks out there.

Research for this kind of stuff is a lot more widespread and advanced than USADA (and many others) would really like to care for, and its ongoing all the time, because as you can see the demand for this - particularly in undetected form - and particularly in sports where the pay cheques (Australian form of the USA paycheck) can be huge (like boxing, football and cycling) - is almost limitless.

[B]Blood Doping:[/B] Typically, for the moment, blood doping falls under 2 common groups: Transfusion and Endogenous Erythrocyte Production Stimulation.

I won't go into these performance enhancing drugs and their manufacture and operation methods as detailed as I did for Artificial Oxygen Carriers, as both transfusions and erythrocyte production stimulation are a little less counter intuitive due to the fact that their inherent design and approaches pretty much relate to and/or rely on transfusions (which most people understand) and/or increasing the oxygen count and delivery efficiency.

Plus I have already laid out the physiological, molecular and chemical fundamentals associated with performance enhancing substances above, and they rarely change regardless of the performance enhancing drug.

What's not commonly known though, is why transfusing your own (non PED assisted) blood would provide a performance advantage.

Sure it’s obvious that doing so would be almost undetectable. But how does a simple transfusion improve performance?

As we all know, transfusion is the transfer of blood into a person's vein.

Research has clearly shown transfusions augment an athlete’s hemoglobin count well above normal levels - this is a well known in medical sciences, including cardiology, phlebotomy and pathology.

The increased hemoglobin levels, as you would imagine from my above discussion, directly correlates to a noticeably elevated peak oxygen carrying ability and/or uptake.

This happens because the additional hemoglobin molecules (remember they’re the body’s natural carrier of gas molecules, such as oxygen, and more oxygen can offset fatigue just as much as it improves performance; for all the above-mentioned reasons) can transport even more oxygen molecules throughout the body.

And with such a great amount of additional oxygen being transported and supplied to the body's tissues an athlete's endurance is significantly heightened, and as a result of that they're then able to perform at a more insane and/or intense level and for a longer period of time.

For anyone that thinks this stuff doesn’t apply to boxing; think again.

That type of thinking comes from the days when the only types of performance enhancing drugs that were considered in the debate were steroids, and the debate - or at least as it applied to boxing - was shut closed with the tried and proven knowledge in the sport that increasing muscle mass - in the manner body builder’s do - is not conducive to increasing a boxer’s performance; as the sweet science has far more thinking, athletic, anaerobic and aerobic aspects to it for anyone to gain an advantage by simply increasing their muscle mass.

However, deferring the onset of fatigue is another consideration all together for boxing.

Particularly if it is deferred to such an extent that fatigue is not noticed.

Imagine standing up as the bell sounds for seconds out in the 12th round feeling how you did when you rose from your stool for the 3rd round all warmed up and not fatigued.

That’s what we’re talking about my friends.

Welcome to the new age of artificial oxygen carrying performance enhancing substances ([B]AOCPES[/B]).

Some of these guys (AOCPES) are also designed with other molecular composites to increase muscles, but only fast twitch fibers.

And their results are as impressive as the list of boxers that have been detected with banned substances that I have provided in my previous post (within this thread, with the link provided in it to an even earlier post about performance enhancing substances) athletes.

Think about that, then think about RJJ, how spectacular and other worldly his performance in his prime were, and also how the performances he (and many others {that I still like and respect, as the performance enhancing drugs didn’t provide them with their skills and experience}) authored noticeably lost their “dazzling and spectacularly better than anyone else element” right about when, or a few months after the Balco scandal.

Check the calendar and you will see the incredible coincidences.

Naturally to put into service this form of doping, athletes must collect and also store several units of their own blood, or someone else’s of a similar type, months in advance to competition of interest.

From there they then, usually with a cardiologist’s assistance, transfuse it back into themselves just prior to the event. Transfusions as a form of blood doping have been around for quite a while, as the 1968 Olympic games instance stands testimony to where, in Mexico, a cyclist broke the outdoor single hour cycling record as a result of assistance he received by his cardiologist and several men that possessed the same blood type as himself.

The “game” has moved on considerably since then though.

As mentioned above another popular method of blood doping, is [B]Endogenous Erythrocyte Production Stimulation[/B].

[B]EEPS[/B] blood doping is essentially the outcome of a biological process referred to as [B]Erythropoiesis[/B], that is itself normally regulated by tissue oxygenation within the human body.

When hypoxia (a condition in which the body or a region of the body, such as the tissues within muscles, is deprived of an adequate oxygen supply) occurs, sensors within the kidneys are triggered that in turn lead to increased production of the hormone erythropoietin, or EPO.

Now that I refer to this form of blood doping with a reference to EPO it, or aspects of it, will no doubt be recognized a little better. But there is a little more to this form of blood doping than creating a circumstance where tissue is depleted of oxygen.

Stay with me boxing lovers . . . . remember from above? . . . I said that erythrocytes were basically - well for the purpose of this basic discussion anyway - the same as red blood cells, and therefore red blood cells (or erythrocytes) were the most significant to blood oxygenation enhancement.

OK, with that in mind, the above-mentioned EPO then enables more erythrocytes (red blood cells) to be produced within the body.

Usually this takes place within the body’s bone marrow.

Consequently, these extra and plentiful erythrocytes (brought about by hypoxia or the depletion of oxygen in tissue) result in the presence of additional hemoglobin molecules, which as mentioned above happen to greatly aid in the delivery of oxygen to the body's muscles and associated tissues.

Furthermore, all this extra oxygen reaches the hypoxic tissues and then works to alleviate or self regulate the deficiency, and the previously mentioned sensor in the kidneys that originally triggered erythropoiesis then shuts off, and ultimately the extra production of EPO above and beyond normal levels is then halted.

This is, simplistically, what happens when one trains at altitude.

As conditions that create hypoxic states within the body occur at high altitudes where the air is less dense and/or possesses low oxygen concentrations when compared to what is referred to as normobaric conditions.

Under these less dense air conditions, each inhalation the boxer or athlete takes therefore contains less oxygen, and as such there is then far less oxygen available to be transported to the athlete's muscles; ultimately leading to hypoxia, and inducing erythropoiesis . . . . .

Which then (as above-mentioned);

(a) triggers the kidneys to increase production of the hormone erythropoietin, or EPO.

Which then . . . . .

(b) enables more erythrocytes (red blood cells) to be produced within the body.

Which then . . . . .

(c) leads to the presence of additional hemoglobin molecules, which as mentioned above greatly enhance delivery of oxygen to the body's muscles and associated tissues.

This is hypoxia induced erythropoiesis.

This is why boxers train at high altitude and no doubt why 3G stays there at Abel Sanchez' gym, as he is effectively inducing hypoxia and erythropoiesis in a manner that serves his fitness regime and/or blood doping in both an accepted and legal way.

In fact it is the only legal way I know to gain performance advantages that can only be equaled by other methods mentioned here.

When did you last see him tired and breathing heavy during any of his fights and training videos?

But what, if in the true performance enhancing substance culture's form, you actually wanted to experience the benefits of erythropoiesis without inducing and/or “suffering” the fatigue of hypoxia?

Lucky then that erythropoiesis can be induced in two ways: one is by the administration of synthetic erythropoietin and the other is as mentioned above, by the inducement of hypoxic conditions.

Enter synthetic EPO.

This is what the performance enhanced drug and sports world - that (like boxing) really can't directly benefit from traditional steroids and is significantly reliant upon cardiovascular stamina as much, if not more than pure physical strength - has been waiting for.

Initially synthetic EPO was designed and developed as an anti-anemic treatment for patients that had serious renal or kidney failure, cancer and AIDS.

It was also a drug that was used to treat premature babies.

Synthetic EPO usually behaves similarly to the above-mentioned and naturally occurring EPO, and usually it is injected into the athlete several times over a week (the cycle) on a reasonably recurrent basis.

We have all heard of the Olympic and other athletes that have been busted for EPO, so I won’t go into that here, other than to say that it obviously provides benefits that some high profile athletes believed was worth the risk of getting caught for.

Whilst professional sports remains as a well paid and famous career choice for some, performance enhancing drugs will always be seriously big business in the same way that party and other recreational drugs are probably not going anywhere soon.

The above discussion is just a brief insight into the PED subject and how it may apply to boxing; which itself is a great sport that just so happens to be both one of the most grueling and demanding cardiovascular sports there is, and also one of the most highly paid - if you're at the top, calling the shots and dominating.

All of which, for many reasons, make boxing (this includes competitors, managers and promoters) a prime target for the performance enhancing substances and methodologies that I refer to in this discussion.

As such there are other many other forms of performance enhancing substances and artificial oxygen performance enhancing substances (AOCPES) that I haven’t discussed.

For instance consider perfluorochemicals or [B]PFC’s[/B] . . . .

As above-mentioned this is another class of artificial oxygen carriers. PFCs, which are basically synthetic liquids within which oxygen can be dissolved.

What's more interesting about them is that oxygen molecules can be dissolved into PFC particles as the particles themselves pass through the lungs via the bloodstream.

Remember what I said above about hemoglobin molecules that exist in the blood - don’t they perform a similar function?

Well yes they do. But check this out.

These PFC particles, like hemoglobin molecules, travel to various other parts of the human body delivering oxygen. But that’s not all.

Not only do PFCs emulate the body's naturally occurring hemoglobin functionality - but they also serve as an “exchange carriage” (my term) within the body, or more specifically the body’s blood by both transporting a greater amount of oxygen molecules and removing a greater amount of carbon dioxide molecules than hemoglobin alone.

All this whilst the hemoglobin is still there doing its job too! (And just imagine if you also did a transfusion at the same time, even without PED assisted blood).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Just to recap, blood itself consists of platelets, white blood cells, plasma and red blood cells.

The red blood cells (erythrocytes) are the ones we’re most interested in as they're the most relevant to blood oxygenation enhancement and as such they're usually targeted in performance enhancing substance design for all the above-mentioned reasons.

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) travel throughout the human body distributing oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.

Erythrocytes’ red color is solely due to a chemical protein called hemoglobin, and from above that’s the substance that allows them to transport gases; which PFC’s emulate with greater performance.

Finally, with the recap, and as blood travels through our lungs, the oxygen molecules we breath in then attach themselves to the hemoglobin (within the blood in the lungs, just as nicotine does for a smoker), then as blood passes through the body's tissues, the hemoglobin then releases that oxygen directly into the cells; hopefully to ensure our jabs and hooks are accurate, hard, and retrieved as fast as they were thrown.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PFCs are different to hemoglobin though because of that “exchange carriage” I mentioned above.

As this allows PFC’s to exchange gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide - which are both critical to cardiovascular dominated sports performances, far more rapidly and far more efficiently than the hemoglobin molecule can alone. This is because of the way PFC’s capture and release gases, as it is done by a process referred to as diffusion.

And because PFC’s capture and release gases by a process referred to as diffusion it means that the amount of oxygen transported by PFC’s is directly related to how soluble the gas is that’s actually being transported. Therefore, to increase oxygen delivered to muscles and tissues all one simply has to do is increase the oxygen concentration of the gas being inhaled, and this overcomes a limitation associated with the naturally occurring hemoglobin molecule within our bodies.

Not in the least as each hemoglobin molecule within our bodies is really only equipped with the fixed ability to transport a maximum of only four oxygen molecules at any given time.

Therefore, the naturally occurring hemoglobin molecule within our bodies is - particularly by comparison to PFC’s - seriously limited in its oxygen transfer capabilities by the number of hemoglobin molecules present at any given time.

As you know sometimes I use mechanical engineering and/or automotive terms to explain certain aspects of this sport.

At this juncture it is perhaps appropriate to do the same.

Most are familiar with nitrous oxide and its use within the high performance automotive industry. One reason nitrous oxide instantly adds power is because it supplies its own oxygen molecules; so much so that usually vehicles fitted with nitrous oxide must also be recalibrated so their fuel injection will deliver more fuel when the nitrous oxide switch is thrown “on”.

Like our lungs, the internal combustion engine is basically an air and/or gas pump. But, unlike our body, the internal combustion engine also has an internal combustion cycle (the power stroke that occurs when the fuel is burnt, that subsequently transforms the chemical energy from the fuel into a force that acts on the piston and other rotating assembly components of the engine; resulting in torque) that delivers the torque and/or rotational velocity of the crankshaft that is ultimately harnessed and converted to forward thrust by the vehicle’s additional drive and power train components.

Much performance consideration of the internal combustion engine relies upon getting the gases efficiently into the motor and out.

The delivery of oxygen (or air) is critical to internal combustion engine performance and this is why superchargers, turbocharger-chargers and hi-rise induction systems are popular in American street and other racing cultures; as essentially they’re all either air pumps or air flow assistance devices fitted to the engine.

Injecting the fuel is the easy part; getting the gases in and out and reducing friction (or losses) is not quite so easy - particularly if you're competing at F1 level where things happen fast.

No other performance enhancing system that seeks to deliver seriously large quantities of air to the engine in the performance drive-train or vehicle world provides the instant power advantage that nitrous oxide does without introducing some kind of, additional loss, undesirable characteristic, or other efficiency concern.

The reason why is because nitrous oxide deals with the issue of oxygen delivery at a molecular and (sometimes) liquid level, and in doing so the traditional issues related to air flow, air pumps (super and turbo-chargers) that have been debated at length on various forums simply fall away. By and large this is because the oxygen can then be treated like a fuel and forced in through an injector.

Go for a ride in a properly equipped nitrous oxide vehicle one day when the switch is thrown, and you will see what I mean.

PFC’s, particularly when used in combination with other above-mentioned methods of enhancing oxygen content in the body, can be considered to be the nitrous oxide for the body and as such they're are similar as they not only deal with delivering oxygen to the body at a molecular and (sometimes) liquid (remember PFC’s capture and release gases by a process called diffusion that ensures the amount of oxygen transported by PFC’s is directly related to how soluble the gas {oxygen and carbon dioxide} is that’s actually being transported) level - but also circumvent many of the body’s natural constraints to fatigue and therefore also circumventing constraints to; poor athletic performance, fame and fortune.

This is why performance enhancing substances are here to stay and organizations like USADA that will tailor their scope of investigations as contractually required and requested - regardless of whether it means someone achieving an advantage via the use of a performance enhancing drug remains officially undetected and/or anonymous; whilst the public subscribe to the mantra, or are advised, that PED testing is in place - will remain popular and in business for a far longer period of time than those organizations such as VADA, that will not follow the same approach.

I agree that we need a real solution, but in boxing USADA is not it unless you only want to provide the appearance something is being done.

The only thing that will change it, particularly in boxing, will be when promoters are serious about the PED issue and for that to happen they have to treat it and boxers as a higher priority than profits.

I reckon ecstasy will go out of fashion at dance parties before that.

Don’t hold your breath on either though.

Radam G says:

Good stuff, Storm. Holla!

amayseng says:

[QUOTE=stormcentre;58436]Oh look I probably shouldn't say this . . but it is fun - sorry just being honest.

Seems to me then, based on what you're saying, that we have a "concept" agency (VADA) with zero employees that can test for performance enhancing substances within the boxing fraternity far more rigorously than the popular USADA.

That is, of course, if you accept that a tax declaration and also the definition of an employee as being the only person that can perform functions for the organization; are good examples of a part-time business' complete operation.

I agree that VADA, as they are registered, may not earn much annual revenue.

But then neither would you if your primary focus was boxing and your testing and contractual policies towards performance enhancing substances within the boxing fraternity were the antithesis of USADA.

Still Goodman, and her contractors, are there whenever the sport is serious.

-------------------------------------

Onto EPO, blood doping and other similar performance enhancing substances, and a little bit of research.

EPO, blood doping and other similar performance enhancing substances will actually provide more than a minimal performance benefit in any sport where sustained anaerobic and aerobic fitness is required.

This is why they can be used in boxing, providing noticeable advantages in the areas of heart rate economy for a given output, recovery rate, sustaining attacks and almost anything that benefits from carrying and delivering oxygen molecules to the hemoglobin within blood, which in turn is the substance that allows blood to transport gases (like oxygen).

A lot of people don't understand how an athlete's body and muscles work and as such they can't properly grasp how PED's work and/or how an organization might effectively test for them and provide a valuable, non-manipulated, service.

Here is a starter that I wrote today for you, and apologies to those whom already know this.

Blood itself consists of plasma, platelets, and both white and red blood cells.

Of these, the red blood cells (erythrocytes) are the most significant to blood oxygenation enhancement.

As the Erythrocytes rapidly travel through the body delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.

When the blood passes through the lungs, the abovementioned oxygen molecules then have the opportunity to attach to the hemoglobin when blood traverses through the body's lung tissues, and as that happens the hemoglobin then releases oxygen into the cells.

The oxygen can offset and/or prevent the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid.

What does that mean you may ask?

Well, what it means is that the oxygen molecules, released into the human body's cells, can effectively delay the onset of muscle fatigue.

And this is what prolongs an athlete's ability to perform, just as much as it causes those with a genuine interest for safety in boxing to become alarmed; as natural fatigue serves safety in boxing more than some may care to consider.

Clearly this discussion here needs to remain relatively simple, but if there is an oxygen deficiency in the muscle the abovementioned pyruvic acid may (quicker than hoped) convert to another chemical we all know: lactic acid.

This happens even without any performance enhancing substance being present.

Large amounts of this guy (lactic acid) built up in the muscle cells is familiar to most that train for 8 or more rounds in a combat sport and it doesn’t feel too flash when your back is on the ropes and 3G - or anyone for that matter - is wailing on you.

Not in the least, as when your (pertinent) muscles have lactic acid within them above a certain threshold your arms and body will not respond to your brain’s neurological programming and/or signals as expected, as quickly and as accurately as you intend; even if you're not mentally fatigued - which can (psychologically or not) have a chicken (no pun intended) and egg relationship with the muscle fatigue I am about to describe.

Remember too - it’s the muscles in the body that also allow those with evasive and good defensive skills to stay close and within range where they can strike, whilst making the other guy miss.

So lactic acid and cardiovascular fatigue then bring dangers in boxing also, and this then becomes one area why and where performance enhancing drugs enters the philosophical realm, as one could mount the argument that taking them then makes it safer for you from a defensive standpoint. Naturally, the counter claim would be that assistance is offset by the additional danger of your opponent not experiencing muscular fatigue as early as he may have otherwise.

And in turn, that may also be countered with the argument that performance enhancing drugs usually provide the best advantage when only one boxing opponent out of two use them. And on and on the debate rages.

What's not debatable is that as the lactic acid builds up in the muscles it overflows into the bloodstream (where the abovementioned hemoglobin and attached oxygen previously came from), and from there it begins to impede muscle contraction.

This is why your arms are unable to accurately and sharply throw punches after a few hard rounds; even just on the bag.

It is the accumulation of this lactic acid, resulting from an oxygen deficiency in the cells, that is itself a major contributor to muscle fatigue.

And muscle fatigue is one of the most significant contributors to an athlete’s self (and publicly) critical performances, which therefore - and this is the nucleus of the issue - means it is also of the most significant constraints to the high performance sporting displays/entertainment that command and deliver the kinds of revenue that Money Mayweather publicly appreciates.

In simplistic terms, EPO, blood doping and other similar performance enhancing substances can noticeably prolong the onset of muscle fatigue - which, as touched on above, is the primary indicator and/or one of the most significant constraints to performance for any athlete.

In general terms blood doping allows athletes to have an advantage over their competition in a way that is not necessarily as easy to detect as it is to manufacture an excuse for having an elevated oxygen count present.

But there are many methods and approaches to achieving what blood doping sets out to do.

For example; [B]Blood Oxygenation Enhancement[/B].

This usually follows 2 main approaches with all other blood doping forms (usually) falling into a subset of these; Pure Blood Doping and Artificial Oxygen Carriers.

Each of these approaches dramatically increases an athlete's capability to deliver oxygen to blood to tissue throughout the body and therefore via the above-mentioned methods improving endurance - possibly to increase their ability to such an extent that they maybe achieve their peak athletic performance(s).

[B]Artificial Oxygen Carriers:[/B] are like illicit designer (party) drugs made for performance minded athletes.

They're purposely manufactured substances that are designed to greatly assist in oxygen transportation throughout the body.

As abovementioned, hemoglobin is the body's natural oxygen (and/or gas) carrier in human blood, and to exploit this feature (clandestine?) scientists have (with varying degrees of success) attempted to isolate hemoglobin from erythrocytes (remember erythrocytes? Above? They’re the body’s red blood cells. ) so that it can be infused directly into humans.

Why do they do that?

Well, hemoglobin carries oxygen to the muscles and the more of it the less fatigue and greater performance.

However, usually whenever the isolated hemoglobin is infused and/or "administered" in an artificial environment - such as one where Blood Doping and/or Blood Oxygenation Enhancement is taking place to increase the oxygen count - a chemical reaction takes place within the body that results in toxin production which then counteracts or constrains the entire performance enhancement axiom for reasons I won't go into here.

As I implied before, it’s complex and removing these obstacles - particularly in an undetectable way - is where the big bucks lie just as much as the laboratories that undertake this work for the underground sporting market are usually not listed in the phone book.

Recently, and I believe (but can't and don't want to prove) that Victor Conte was in some way involved in this part of the artificial oxygen carrier PED evolutionary history; a way to circumvent the aforementioned constraint and its associated chemical breakdown has given way to development of several new generations of modified hemoglobin solutions.

The latest of which involves encapsulating erythrocytes content themselves inside artificial erythrocytes “aliases” that themselves also have artificial membranes wrapped around them.

Kind of like a tunneling protocol for you IT geeks out there.

Research for this kind of stuff is a lot more widespread and advanced than USADA (and many others) would really like to care for, and its ongoing all the time, because as you can see the demand for this - particularly in undetected form - and particularly in sports where the pay cheques (Australian form of the USA paycheck) can be huge (like boxing, football and cycling) - is almost limitless.

[B]Blood Doping:[/B] Typically, for the moment, blood doping falls under 2 common groups: Transfusion and Endogenous Erythrocyte Production Stimulation.

I won't go into these performance enhancing drugs and their manufacture and operation methods as detailed as I did for Artificial Oxygen Carriers, as both transfusions and erythrocyte production stimulation are a little less counter intuitive due to the fact that their inherent design and approaches pretty much relate to and/or rely on transfusions (which most people understand) and/or increasing the oxygen count and delivery efficiency.

Plus I have already laid out the physiological, molecular and chemical fundamentals associated with performance enhancing substances above, and they rarely change regardless of the performance enhancing drug.

What's not commonly known though, is why transfusing your own (non PED assisted) blood would provide a performance advantage.

Sure it’s obvious that doing so would be almost undetectable. But how does a simple transfusion improve performance?

As we all know, transfusion is the transfer of blood into a person's vein.

Research has clearly shown transfusions augment an athlete’s hemoglobin count well above normal levels - this is a well known in medical sciences, including cardiology, phlebotomy and pathology.

The increased hemoglobin levels, as you would imagine from my above discussion, directly correlates to a noticeably elevated peak oxygen carrying ability and/or uptake.

This happens because the additional hemoglobin molecules (remember they’re the body’s natural carrier of gas molecules, such as oxygen, and more oxygen can offset fatigue just as much as it improves performance; for all the above-mentioned reasons) can transport even more oxygen molecules throughout the body.

And with such a great amount of additional oxygen being transported and supplied to the body's tissues an athlete's endurance is significantly heightened, and as a result of that they're then able to perform at a more insane and/or intense level and for a longer period of time.

For anyone that thinks this stuff doesn’t apply to boxing; think again.

That type of thinking comes from the days when the only types of performance enhancing drugs that were considered in the debate were steroids, and the debate - or at least as it applied to boxing - was shut closed with the tried and proven knowledge in the sport that increasing muscle mass - in the manner body builder’s do - is not conducive to increasing a boxer’s performance; as the sweet science has far more thinking, athletic, anaerobic and aerobic aspects to it for anyone to gain an advantage by simply increasing their muscle mass.

However, deferring the onset of fatigue is another consideration all together for boxing.

Particularly if it is deferred to such an extent that fatigue is not noticed.

Imagine standing up as the bell sounds for seconds out in the 12th round feeling how you did when you rose from your stool for the 3rd round all warmed up and not fatigued.

That’s what we’re talking about my friends.

Welcome to the new age of artificial oxygen carrying performance enhancing substances ([B]AOCPES[/B]).

Some of these guys (AOCPES) are also designed with other molecular composites to increase muscles, but only fast twitch fibers.

And their results are as impressive as the list of boxers that have been detected with banned substances that I have provided in my previous post (within this thread, with the link provided in it to an even earlier post about performance enhancing substances) athletes.

Think about that, then think about RJJ, how spectacular and other worldly his performance in his prime were, and also how the performances he (and many others {that I still like and respect, as the performance enhancing drugs didn’t provide them with their skills and experience}) authored noticeably lost their “dazzling and spectacularly better than anyone else element” right about when, or a few months after the Balco scandal.

Check the calendar and you will see the incredible coincidences.

Naturally to put into service this form of doping, athletes must collect and also store several units of their own blood, or someone else’s of a similar type, months in advance to competition of interest.

From there they then, usually with a cardiologist’s assistance, transfuse it back into themselves just prior to the event. Transfusions as a form of blood doping have been around for quite a while, as the 1968 Olympic games instance stands testimony to where, in Mexico, a cyclist broke the outdoor single hour cycling record as a result of assistance he received by his cardiologist and several men that possessed the same blood type as himself.

The “game” has moved on considerably since then though.

As mentioned above another popular method of blood doping, is [B]Endogenous Erythrocyte Production Stimulation[/B].

[B]EEPS[/B] blood doping is essentially the outcome of a biological process referred to as [B]Erythropoiesis[/B], that is itself normally regulated by tissue oxygenation within the human body.

When hypoxia (a condition in which the body or a region of the body, such as the tissues within muscles, is deprived of an adequate oxygen supply) occurs, sensors within the kidneys are triggered that in turn lead to increased production of the hormone erythropoietin, or EPO.

Now that I refer to this form of blood doping with a reference to EPO it, or aspects of it, will no doubt be recognized a little better. But there is a little more to this form of blood doping than creating a circumstance where tissue is depleted of oxygen.

Stay with me boxing lovers . . . . remember from above? . . . I said that erythrocytes were basically - well for the purpose of this basic discussion anyway - the same as red blood cells, and therefore red blood cells (or erythrocytes) were the most significant to blood oxygenation enhancement.

OK, with that in mind, the above-mentioned EPO then enables more erythrocytes (red blood cells) to be produced within the body.

Usually this takes place within the body’s bone marrow.

Consequently, these extra and plentiful erythrocytes (brought about by hypoxia or the depletion of oxygen in tissue) result in the presence of additional hemoglobin molecules, which as mentioned above happen to greatly aid in the delivery of oxygen to the body's muscles and associated tissues.

Furthermore, all this extra oxygen reaches the hypoxic tissues and then works to alleviate or self regulate the deficiency, and the previously mentioned sensor in the kidneys that originally triggered erythropoiesis then shuts off, and ultimately the extra production of EPO above and beyond normal levels is then halted.

This is, simplistically, what happens when one trains at altitude.

As conditions that create hypoxic states within the body occur at high altitudes where the air is less dense and/or possesses low oxygen concentrations when compared to what is referred to as normobaric conditions.

Under these less dense air conditions, each inhalation the boxer or athlete takes therefore contains less oxygen, and as such there is then far less oxygen available to be transported to the athlete's muscles; ultimately leading to hypoxia, and inducing erythropoiesis . . . . .

Which then (as above-mentioned);

(a) triggers the kidneys to increase production of the hormone erythropoietin, or EPO.

Which then . . . . .

(b) enables more erythrocytes (red blood cells) to be produced within the body.

Which then . . . . .

(c) leads to the presence of additional hemoglobin molecules, which as mentioned above greatly enhance delivery of oxygen to the body's muscles and associated tissues.

This is hypoxia induced erythropoiesis.

This is why boxers train at high altitude and no doubt why 3G stays there at Abel Sanchez' gym, as he is effectively inducing hypoxia and erythropoiesis in a manner that serves his fitness regime and/or blood doping in both an accepted and legal way.

In fact it is the only legal way I know to gain performance advantages that can only be equaled by other methods mentioned here.

When did you last see him tired and breathing heavy during any of his fights and training videos?

But what, if in the true performance enhancing substance culture's form, you actually wanted to experience the benefits of erythropoiesis without inducing and/or “suffering” the fatigue of hypoxia?

Lucky then that erythropoiesis can be induced in two ways: one is by the administration of synthetic erythropoietin and the other is as mentioned above, by the inducement of hypoxic conditions.

Enter synthetic EPO.

This is what the performance enhanced drug and sports world - that (like boxing) really can't directly benefit from traditional steroids and is significantly reliant upon cardiovascular stamina as much, if not more than pure physical strength - has been waiting for.

Initially synthetic EPO was designed and developed as an anti-anemic treatment for patients that had serious renal or kidney failure, cancer and AIDS.

It was also a drug that was used to treat premature babies.

Synthetic EPO usually behaves similarly to the above-mentioned and naturally occurring EPO, and usually it is injected into the athlete several times over a week (the cycle) on a reasonably recurrent basis.

We have all heard of the Olympic and other athletes that have been busted for EPO, so I won’t go into that here, other than to say that it obviously provides benefits that some high profile athletes believed was worth the risk of getting caught for.

Whilst professional sports remains as a well paid and famous career choice for some, performance enhancing drugs will always be seriously big business in the same way that party and other recreational drugs are probably not going anywhere soon.

The above discussion is just a brief insight into the PED subject and how it may apply to boxing; which itself is a great sport that just so happens to be both one of the most grueling and demanding cardiovascular sports there is, and also one of the most highly paid - if you're at the top, calling the shots and dominating.

All of which, for many reasons, make boxing (this includes competitors, managers and promoters) a prime target for the performance enhancing substances and methodologies that I refer to in this discussion.

As such there are other many other forms of performance enhancing substances and artificial oxygen performance enhancing substances (AOCPES) that I haven’t discussed.

For instance consider perfluorochemicals or [B]PFC’s[/B] . . . .

As above-mentioned this is another class of artificial oxygen carriers. PFCs, which are basically synthetic liquids within which oxygen can be dissolved.

What's more interesting about them is that oxygen molecules can be dissolved into PFC particles as the particles themselves pass through the lungs via the bloodstream.

Remember what I said above about hemoglobin molecules that exist in the blood - don’t they perform a similar function?

Well yes they do. But check this out.

These PFC particles, like hemoglobin molecules, travel to various other parts of the human body delivering oxygen. But that’s not all.

Not only do PFCs emulate the body's naturally occurring hemoglobin functionality - but they also serve as an “exchange carriage” (my term) within the body, or more specifically the body’s blood by both transporting a greater amount of oxygen molecules and removing a greater amount of carbon dioxide molecules than hemoglobin alone.

All this whilst the hemoglobin is still there doing its job too! (And just imagine if you also did a transfusion at the same time, even without PED assisted blood).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Just to recap, blood itself consists of platelets, white blood cells, plasma and red blood cells.

The red blood cells (erythrocytes) are the ones we’re most interested in as they're the most relevant to blood oxygenation enhancement and as such they're usually targeted in performance enhancing substance design for all the above-mentioned reasons.

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) travel throughout the human body distributing oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.

Erythrocytes’ red color is solely due to a chemical protein called hemoglobin, and from above that’s the substance that allows them to transport gases; which PFC’s emulate with greater performance.

Finally, with the recap, and as blood travels through our lungs, the oxygen molecules we breath in then attach themselves to the hemoglobin (within the blood in the lungs, just as nicotine does for a smoker), then as blood passes through the body's tissues, the hemoglobin then releases that oxygen directly into the cells; hopefully to ensure our jabs and hooks are accurate, hard, and retrieved as fast as they were thrown.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

PFCs are different to hemoglobin though because of that “exchange carriage” I mentioned above.

As this allows PFC’s to exchange gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide - which are both critical to cardiovascular dominated sports performances, far more rapidly and far more efficiently than the hemoglobin molecule can alone. This is because of the way PFC’s capture and release gases, as it is done by a process referred to as diffusion.

And because PFC’s capture and release gases by a process referred to as diffusion it means that the amount of oxygen transported by PFC’s is directly related to how soluble the gas is that’s actually being transported. Therefore, to increase oxygen delivered to muscles and tissues all one simply has to do is increase the oxygen concentration of the gas being inhaled, and this overcomes a limitation associated with the naturally occurring hemoglobin molecule within our bodies.

Not in the least as each hemoglobin molecule within our bodies is really only equipped with the fixed ability to transport a maximum of only four oxygen molecules at any given time.

Therefore, the naturally occurring hemoglobin molecule within our bodies is - particularly by comparison to PFC’s - seriously limited in its oxygen transfer capabilities by the number of hemoglobin molecules present at any given time.

As you know sometimes I use mechanical engineering and/or automotive terms to explain certain aspects of this sport.

At this juncture it is perhaps appropriate to do the same.

Most are familiar with nitrous oxide and its use within the high performance automotive industry. One reason nitrous oxide instantly adds power is because it supplies its own oxygen molecules; so much so that usually vehicles fitted with nitrous oxide must also be recalibrated so their fuel injection will deliver more fuel when the nitrous oxide switch is thrown “on”.

Like our lungs, the internal combustion engine is basically an air and/or gas pump. But, unlike our body, the internal combustion engine also has an internal combustion cycle (the power stroke that occurs when the fuel is burnt, that subsequently transforms the chemical energy from the fuel into a force that acts on the piston and other rotating assembly components of the engine; resulting in torque) that delivers the torque and/or rotational velocity of the crankshaft that is ultimately harnessed and converted to forward thrust by the vehicle’s additional drive and power train components.

Much performance consideration of the internal combustion engine relies upon getting the gases efficiently into the motor and out.

The delivery of oxygen (or air) is critical to internal combustion engine performance and this is why superchargers, turbocharger-chargers and hi-rise induction systems are popular in American street and other racing cultures; as essentially they’re all either air pumps or air flow assistance devices fitted to the engine.

Injecting the fuel is the easy part; getting the gases in and out and reducing friction (or losses) is not quite so easy - particularly if you're competing at F1 level where things happen fast.

No other performance enhancing system that seeks to deliver seriously large quantities of air to the engine in the performance drive-train or vehicle world provides the instant power advantage that nitrous oxide does without introducing some kind of, additional loss, undesirable characteristic, or other efficiency concern.

The reason why is because nitrous oxide deals with the issue of oxygen delivery at a molecular and (sometimes) liquid level, and in doing so the traditional issues related to air flow, air pumps (super and turbo-chargers) that have been debated at length on various forums simply fall away. By and large this is because the oxygen can then be treated like a fuel and forced in through an injector.

Go for a ride in a properly equipped nitrous oxide vehicle one day when the switch is thrown, and you will see what I mean.

PFC’s, particularly when used in combination with other above-mentioned methods of enhancing oxygen content in the body, can be considered to be the nitrous oxide for the body and as such they're are similar as they not only deal with delivering oxygen to the body at a molecular and (sometimes) liquid (remember PFC’s capture and release gases by a process called diffusion that ensures the amount of oxygen transported by PFC’s is directly related to how soluble the gas {oxygen and carbon dioxide} is that’s actually being transported) level - but also circumvent many of the body’s natural constraints to fatigue and therefore also circumventing constraints to; poor athletic performance, fame and fortune.

This is why performance enhancing substances are here to stay and organizations like USADA that will tailor their scope of investigations as contractually required and requested - regardless of whether it means someone achieving an advantage via the use of a performance enhancing drug remains officially undetected and/or anonymous; whilst the public subscribe to the mantra, or are advised, that PED testing is in place - will remain popular and in business for a far longer period of time than those organizations such as VADA, that will not follow the same approach.

I agree that we need a real solution, but in boxing USADA is not it unless you only want to provide the appearance something is being done.

The only thing that will change it, particularly in boxing, will be when promoters are serious about the PED issue and for that to happen they have to treat it and boxers as a higher priority than profits.

I reckon ecstasy will go out of fashion at dance parties before that.

Don’t hold your breath on either though.[/QUOTE]



Just give the man his 500$ now , he earned it.

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