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The Good Doctor:

This sounds weird, but I hope for Rios sake, that Chaves crushes him to the point that possibility of the Provodnikov fight is off. Rios has shown me that he is a one dimensional hype job. He does not hit hard, he has no defense, and Garcia is doing nothing to help this kid. He has taken beatings whether in victory or defeat from Alvarado twice, Pac, and Abril. His pressure style is more to his detriment than his advantage and if he fights Ruslan, it could end up being a life altering fight. Provodnikov basically rearranged Algieri's face with one punch, imagine a guy taking punches like that for twelve rounds.

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Radam G:

"



A question for Radam: how does one do four sessions a day?!"




"Ain't nuffin' to it. But to do it. Mind over matter! Fo'get da chit chatter!"



He does it that way. The mental controls the physical. Always have. Always will. Boksing is a mental game.



Money May is just doing old skool. Nothing special. Just KI$$ -- keeping it $imply $weet or keep in $hape, $on! Holla!

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oubobcat:

I love the fight but before we can seriously think about it Rios has a tough challenge in front of him next week. How about Provodnikov faces the winner of Rios-Chaves?

One thing not being discussed a lot but should be is how much bigger a man that Chaves is than Rios. Rios fought much of his career around Jr. Lightweight and Lightweight. Only recently did he come to Jr. Welterweight and then to Welterweight (well 145) for his last fight against Pacquiao. Chavez has fought primarily his whole career at Welterweight and even ventured some to Jr. Middleweight.

We all know Rios likes to exchange and is more than willing to take a few punches to give a few of his own. But in the past he was absorbing punches from Lightweight and Jr. Welterweights. Chaves is a big punching Welterweight. How will Rios respond if he gets in an exchange and gets hit flush by a big natural hard punching Welterweight? Will Rios' power be the same at 147 against a natural Welterweight? Personally, I favor Chaves and think he pulls the upset. He takes Rios' punches better than Rios takes his and gets a stoppage.

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The Good Doctor:

"The interesting thing about him is that his athletic performance, output, punching power -- things that are aided by performance-enhancing agents -- have been in a noticeable, if not steep decline as he moved up in weight and aged.

Nowadays, he essentially beats guys by limiting their punch outputs while hitting them once in a while. Remember, he had an extraordinary KO rate at super feather. Once he got to welterweight fighting guys significantly bigger than him, he wasn't stopping anyone anymore.

Then there's the work rate. He stopped throwing combinations, electing to only do 1-2s for the most part. He's very economical. So in that sense, there aren't really any red flags; he beats guys in a similar to Bernard Hopkins by lulling them to sleep.

He even looks older these days, like he suddenly aged a few years since getting out of jail. Look at his face when he fought Cotto and now.

As far as Xylocaine goes, that's not illegal. Muhammad Ali used to get his hands shot full of numbing stuff.

Now, if he suddenly were to blast guys out starting next year, I'd be extremely suspicious of him, too. But there has been no sudden fluctuation either way in performance; it's just been a consistent erosion that he makes up for with experienceplus his ATG hand-eye coordination, timing, anticipation and in-ring IQ. (No drugs exist for that; only experience and teaching.)

Then you look at a guy like Andre Berto fighting at a certain level, gets popped and then loses to everything in sight, including a completely overmatched (by "normal" Berto standards) Jesus Soto-Karass. It's not an accident.

While nothing in his performance stands out, there is one thing that puzzles me about Mayweather however: his ability to do 4-a-days, especially as frail as he is. That's abnormal. While he's raised with that military-like regimen, it is still pretty hefty at age 37.

A guy like him would/could benefit tremendously from recovery drugs, like cortisone, the stuff Conte was feeding Tim Montgomery (insulin) and that IGF-1 stuff.

By comparison, most guys, from what I hear, do two-a-days.

A question for Radam: how does one do four sessions a day?!"



I think what you say there is why there really is no suspicion of Mayweather. I noticed that when he fought the Ghost that he was noticeably slower and not quite as crisp. The thing is though that when Floyd slows down, he is declining from a talent and skill level so far above everyone else's, that you almost miss it.

As far as him knocking out fighters earlier in his career, Floyd contrary to popular belief use to beat people to a pulp. However, he realized that to KO people he had to sit down and leave himself open to be countered. His style switched to a more protective style which has preserved him through the years. Up until the Maidana fight, you can make the argument that Floyd had been in only one real high pressure scrap in his entire career against Castillo. Cotto and De La Hoya were tough fights but neither would I classify as brawls that really take something out of guys.

I think people also miss out on the fact that being a KO artist takes something out of the guy throwing the bombs too. The amount of torque put on the shoulders, hips, calves, and feet to throw cinder block like punches is tremendous. You often hear of the hard hitting guys needing surgeries on their shoulders and knees late in their career because they have put so much pressure on them for so many years. Floyd has avoided that path as well.

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The Shadow:

"I don't see the comparison's to Ricardo Lopez. Lopez was a different breed to me, a once in a generation special fighter.

To me, Lopez possessed all the attributes of an all time great but never really got the proper recognition due to the weight class he fought in most of his career. He was almost perfect in his ring technique during his prime and rarely got hit. As a matter of fact, some would argue during his prime he was perfect. I can't remember him being hit clean very often during his prime.

I remember a fight back in March of 1997 against Mongkol Chareon. Lopez was dominating as usual but Chareon was tough as nails and would not go away. Anyway, I can't remember which round but it was later in the fight when Chareon caught Lopez with a flush hard punch. I almost fell out of my chair as I could not recall anyone ever landing clean on Lopez until that moment. And the real funny part was Lopez came back to his corner after the round and apologized for getting hit.

Lopez was not only a great defensive fighter but what made him so special was that he was aggressive in so many of his fights. He knew the exact right times to throw, at the correct range and right angles to hand and be unable to be countered by his opponents. He was not bring to watch at all and fought in a style that most others would take a lot of punches. But Lopez almost never got hit clean during his prime.

Not to mention, as pointed out in the article, Lopez also possessed one punch power. He was as close to a "perfect" fighter as they come.

Rigo is very good but he is no Lopez. Then again, I don't think we will ever see another fighter like Lopez again."


Lovely post and breakdown of Finito. Apologizing for getting hit is hilarious.

That said, like Radam says, I think Rigo is even better. The Cuban is a once-in-a-lifetime talent.

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Radam G:

"I see that people on here are accusing everyone but one name that is absent is the Mayweather name.

Boxing writer Thomas Hauser broke a story years ago that Floyd failed 3 drug tests but got waivers. It would be interesting to dig up that article.

Again is Floyd on TRT? Is Floyd tested randomly during the year of just in camp when he can control it?"


As I've said ur quadrillion times, they are all on roids and PEDs. It just depends on the degree and legality. It's pure CRAZY to think that none of them are not. And it is crazy to think that a bringing-in-BIG-MOOLAH-to-the-economy draw like Money May would not be forgiven for a few hiccups and beating his babies mommas' @$$e$.

True DAT! True DAT! Money May -- among others -- have failed tests. But, of course, Money got waivers. Nobody should expect anything LESS -- ESPECIALLY in Sin City. You have to have PITY! The ratio was even moved up to protect Mayweather Claus and his reindeers -- I mean stable of fighters who fail regularly. But are given a slap on the wrist. What will red-nose Rudolph -- I mean crack-taking Uncle Roger -- do if the powers that be become seriously righteous. Hehehe! He won't have anybody to do the mitts with.

Nobody and dey neighbor are coming clean and cracking down on roids and PEDs. Entrepreneurs, hotels, casinos, cons, crooks, the corrupted po-po, gettin' paid-off doctors, gamblers, pimps and hos gotta get PAID.

Ev'ybodee and dey momma need to chillax. On dat syet, these muthasuckas don't even pay tax. And that is FATE! Anything else is too late. Holla!

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The Shadow:

"I see that people on here are accusing everyone but one name that is absent is the Mayweather name.

Boxing writer Thomas Hauser broke a story years ago that Floyd failed 3 drug tests but got waivers. It would be interesting to dig up that article.

Again is Floyd on TRT? Is Floyd tested randomly during the year of just in camp when he can control it?"


The interesting thing about him is that his athletic performance, output, punching power -- things that are aided by performance-enhancing agents -- have been in a noticeable, if not steep decline as he moved up in weight and aged.

Nowadays, he essentially beats guys by limiting their punch outputs while hitting them once in a while. Remember, he had an extraordinary KO rate at super feather. Once he got to welterweight fighting guys significantly bigger than him, he wasn't stopping anyone anymore.

Then there's the work rate. He stopped throwing combinations, electing to only do 1-2s for the most part. He's very economical. So in that sense, there aren't really any red flags; he beats guys in a similar to Bernard Hopkins by lulling them to sleep.

He even looks older these days, like he suddenly aged a few years since getting out of jail. Look at his face when he fought Cotto and now.

As far as Xylocaine goes, that's not illegal. Muhammad Ali used to get his hands shot full of numbing stuff.

Now, if he suddenly were to blast guys out starting next year, I'd be extremely suspicious of him, too. But there has been no sudden fluctuation either way in performance; it's just been a consistent erosion that he makes up for with experienceplus his ATG hand-eye coordination, timing, anticipation and in-ring IQ. (No drugs exist for that; only experience and teaching.)

Then you look at a guy like Andre Berto fighting at a certain level, gets popped and then loses to everything in sight, including a completely overmatched (by "normal" Berto standards) Jesus Soto-Karass. It's not an accident.

While nothing in his performance stands out, there is one thing that puzzles me about Mayweather however: his ability to do 4-a-days, especially as frail as he is. That's abnormal. While he's raised with that military-like regimen, it is still pretty hefty at age 37.

A guy like him would/could benefit tremendously from recovery drugs, like cortisone, the stuff Conte was feeding Tim Montgomery (insulin) and that IGF-1 stuff.

By comparison, most guys, from what I hear, do two-a-days.

A question for Radam: how does one do four sessions a day?!

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The Shadow:

This is in German but I still think this is an interesting read. Google will guide you.

http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/a-571031.html

There's a documentary on YouTube where our friend injects himself with EPO to demonstrate. It's not subtitled though -- Germans love to dbu, it's so annoying lol -- so it's hard to hear him. Bet the visual in itself is powerful.

What's crazy is the stuff can be bought over-the-counter! He says it should be legalized. Now change of heart? Really? OK.

That said, I'm sure some guys do use S&C guys' methods to improve their training naturally.

What do you guys think of what he says in the article?

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dino da vinci:

"Bad news. I was looking forward to that one."



I was as well.

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deepwater2:

I see that people on here are accusing everyone but one name that is absent is the Mayweather name.



Boxing writer Thomas Hauser broke a story years ago that Floyd failed 3 drug tests but got waivers. It would be interesting to dig up that article.



Again is Floyd on TRT? Is Floyd tested randomly during the year of just in camp when he can control it?

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brownsugar:

"You really believe that?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XBw25CrUS-o"


Ha ha ha lol.
One of my favorites from back in the day.
You'be got some serious jokes , TheGrey.

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amayseng:

I can't believe everyone except Deep and myself have overlooked Conte's mustache....




On a serious note I get what RG is saying, PEDS dont give you skill....


However, look at a fighter like Margarito--slow feet, slow hands, plodding no agility, low skill, poor coordination, the guy is BELOW average as an athlete, but look at his style of fighting. His ability to throw 100 punches per round with a granite beard allowed him to have himself a very productive and successful career. I am not saying he used peds, but anything like epo could help a fighter of his poor skill level.

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amayseng:

"Oh look I probably shouldn't say this . . but it is fun - sorry just being honest.

Seems to me then, based on what you're saying, that we have a "concept" agency (VADA) with zero employees that can test for performance enhancing substances within the boxing fraternity far more rigorously than the popular USADA.

That is, of course, if you accept that a tax declaration and also the definition of an employee as being the only person that can perform functions for the organization; are good examples of a part-time business' complete operation.

I agree that VADA, as they are registered, may not earn much annual revenue.

But then neither would you if your primary focus was boxing and your testing and contractual policies towards performance enhancing substances within the boxing fraternity were the antithesis of USADA.

Still Goodman, and her contractors, are there whenever the sport is serious.

-------------------------------------

Onto EPO, blood doping and other similar performance enhancing substances, and a little bit of research.

EPO, blood doping and other similar performance enhancing substances will actually provide more than a minimal performance benefit in any sport where sustained anaerobic and aerobic fitness is required.

This is why they can be used in boxing, providing noticeable advantages in the areas of heart rate economy for a given output, recovery rate, sustaining attacks and almost anything that benefits from carrying and delivering oxygen molecules to the hemoglobin within blood, which in turn is the substance that allows blood to transport gases (like oxygen).

A lot of people don't understand how an athlete's body and muscles work and as such they can't properly grasp how PED's work and/or how an organization might effectively test for them and provide a valuable, non-manipulated, service.

Here is a starter that I wrote today for you, and apologies to those whom already know this.

Blood itself consists of plasma, platelets, and both white and red blood cells.

Of these, the red blood cells (erythrocytes) are the most significant to blood oxygenation enhancement.

As the Erythrocytes rapidly travel through the body delivering oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.

When the blood passes through the lungs, the abovementioned oxygen molecules then have the opportunity to attach to the hemoglobin when blood traverses through the body's lung tissues, and as that happens the hemoglobin then releases oxygen into the cells.

The oxygen can offset and/or prevent the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid.

What does that mean you may ask?

Well, what it means is that the oxygen molecules, released into the human body's cells, can effectively delay the onset of muscle fatigue.

And this is what prolongs an athlete's ability to perform, just as much as it causes those with a genuine interest for safety in boxing to become alarmed; as natural fatigue serves safety in boxing more than some may care to consider.

Clearly this discussion here needs to remain relatively simple, but if there is an oxygen deficiency in the muscle the abovementioned pyruvic acid may (quicker than hoped) convert to another chemical we all know: lactic acid.

This happens even without any performance enhancing substance being present.

Large amounts of this guy (lactic acid) built up in the muscle cells is familiar to most that train for 8 or more rounds in a combat sport and it doesn’t feel too flash when your back is on the ropes and 3G - or anyone for that matter - is wailing on you.

Not in the least, as when your (pertinent) muscles have lactic acid within them above a certain threshold your arms and body will not respond to your brain’s neurological programming and/or signals as expected, as quickly and as accurately as you intend; even if you're not mentally fatigued - which can (psychologically or not) have a chicken (no pun intended) and egg relationship with the muscle fatigue I am about to describe.

Remember too - it’s the muscles in the body that also allow those with evasive and good defensive skills to stay close and within range where they can strike, whilst making the other guy miss.

So lactic acid and cardiovascular fatigue then bring dangers in boxing also, and this then becomes one area why and where performance enhancing drugs enters the philosophical realm, as one could mount the argument that taking them then makes it safer for you from a defensive standpoint. Naturally, the counter claim would be that assistance is offset by the additional danger of your opponent not experiencing muscular fatigue as early as he may have otherwise.

And in turn, that may also be countered with the argument that performance enhancing drugs usually provide the best advantage when only one boxing opponent out of two use them. And on and on the debate rages.

What's not debatable is that as the lactic acid builds up in the muscles it overflows into the bloodstream (where the abovementioned hemoglobin and attached oxygen previously came from), and from there it begins to impede muscle contraction.

This is why your arms are unable to accurately and sharply throw punches after a few hard rounds; even just on the bag.

It is the accumulation of this lactic acid, resulting from an oxygen deficiency in the cells, that is itself a major contributor to muscle fatigue.

And muscle fatigue is one of the most significant contributors to an athlete’s self (and publicly) critical performances, which therefore - and this is the nucleus of the issue - means it is also of the most significant constraints to the high performance sporting displays/entertainment that command and deliver the kinds of revenue that Money Mayweather publicly appreciates.

In simplistic terms, EPO, blood doping and other similar performance enhancing substances can noticeably prolong the onset of muscle fatigue - which, as touched on above, is the primary indicator and/or one of the most significant constraints to performance for any athlete.

In general terms blood doping allows athletes to have an advantage over their competition in a way that is not necessarily as easy to detect as it is to manufacture an excuse for having an elevated oxygen count present.

But there are many methods and approaches to achieving what blood doping sets out to do.

For example; Blood Oxygenation Enhancement.

This usually follows 2 main approaches with all other blood doping forms (usually) falling into a subset of these; Pure Blood Doping and Artificial Oxygen Carriers.

Each of these approaches dramatically increases an athlete's capability to deliver oxygen to blood to tissue throughout the body and therefore via the above-mentioned methods improving endurance - possibly to increase their ability to such an extent that they maybe achieve their peak athletic performance(s).

Artificial Oxygen Carriers: are like illicit designer (party) drugs made for performance minded athletes.

They're purposely manufactured substances that are designed to greatly assist in oxygen transportation throughout the body.

As abovementioned, hemoglobin is the body's natural oxygen (and/or gas) carrier in human blood, and to exploit this feature (clandestine?) scientists have (with varying degrees of success) attempted to isolate hemoglobin from erythrocytes (remember erythrocytes? Above? They’re the body’s red blood cells. :)) so that it can be infused directly into humans.

Why do they do that?

Well, hemoglobin carries oxygen to the muscles and the more of it the less fatigue and greater performance.

However, usually whenever the isolated hemoglobin is infused and/or "administered" in an artificial environment - such as one where Blood Doping and/or Blood Oxygenation Enhancement is taking place to increase the oxygen count - a chemical reaction takes place within the body that results in toxin production which then counteracts or constrains the entire performance enhancement axiom for reasons I won't go into here.

As I implied before, it’s complex and removing these obstacles - particularly in an undetectable way - is where the big bucks lie just as much as the laboratories that undertake this work for the underground sporting market are usually not listed in the phone book.

Recently, and I believe (but can't and don't want to prove) that Victor Conte was in some way involved in this part of the artificial oxygen carrier PED evolutionary history; a way to circumvent the aforementioned constraint and its associated chemical breakdown has given way to development of several new generations of modified hemoglobin solutions.

The latest of which involves encapsulating erythrocytes content themselves inside artificial erythrocytes “aliases” that themselves also have artificial membranes wrapped around them.

Kind of like a tunneling protocol for you IT geeks out there.

Research for this kind of stuff is a lot more widespread and advanced than USADA (and many others) would really like to care for, and its ongoing all the time, because as you can see the demand for this - particularly in undetected form - and particularly in sports where the pay cheques (Australian form of the USA paycheck) can be huge (like boxing, football and cycling) - is almost limitless.

Blood Doping: Typically, for the moment, blood doping falls under 2 common groups: Transfusion and Endogenous Erythrocyte Production Stimulation.

I won't go into these performance enhancing drugs and their manufacture and operation methods as detailed as I did for Artificial Oxygen Carriers, as both transfusions and erythrocyte production stimulation are a little less counter intuitive due to the fact that their inherent design and approaches pretty much relate to and/or rely on transfusions (which most people understand) and/or increasing the oxygen count and delivery efficiency.

Plus I have already laid out the physiological, molecular and chemical fundamentals associated with performance enhancing substances above, and they rarely change regardless of the performance enhancing drug.

What's not commonly known though, is why transfusing your own (non PED assisted) blood would provide a performance advantage.

Sure it’s obvious that doing so would be almost undetectable. But how does a simple transfusion improve performance?

As we all know, transfusion is the transfer of blood into a person's vein.

Research has clearly shown transfusions augment an athlete’s hemoglobin count well above normal levels - this is a well known in medical sciences, including cardiology, phlebotomy and pathology.

The increased hemoglobin levels, as you would imagine from my above discussion, directly correlates to a noticeably elevated peak oxygen carrying ability and/or uptake.

This happens because the additional hemoglobin molecules (remember they’re the body’s natural carrier of gas molecules, such as oxygen, and more oxygen can offset fatigue just as much as it improves performance; for all the above-mentioned reasons) can transport even more oxygen molecules throughout the body.

And with such a great amount of additional oxygen being transported and supplied to the body's tissues an athlete's endurance is significantly heightened, and as a result of that they're then able to perform at a more insane and/or intense level and for a longer period of time.

For anyone that thinks this stuff doesn’t apply to boxing; think again.

That type of thinking comes from the days when the only types of performance enhancing drugs that were considered in the debate were steroids, and the debate - or at least as it applied to boxing - was shut closed with the tried and proven knowledge in the sport that increasing muscle mass - in the manner body builder’s do - is not conducive to increasing a boxer’s performance; as the sweet science has far more thinking, athletic, anaerobic and aerobic aspects to it for anyone to gain an advantage by simply increasing their muscle mass.

However, deferring the onset of fatigue is another consideration all together for boxing.

Particularly if it is deferred to such an extent that fatigue is not noticed.

Imagine standing up as the bell sounds for seconds out in the 12th round feeling how you did when you rose from your stool for the 3rd round all warmed up and not fatigued.

That’s what we’re talking about my friends.

Welcome to the new age of artificial oxygen carrying performance enhancing substances (AOCPES).

Some of these guys (AOCPES) are also designed with other molecular composites to increase muscles, but only fast twitch fibers.

And their results are as impressive as the list of boxers that have been detected with banned substances that I have provided in my previous post (within this thread, with the link provided in it to an even earlier post about performance enhancing substances) athletes.

Think about that, then think about RJJ, how spectacular and other worldly his performance in his prime were, and also how the performances he (and many others {that I still like and respect, as the performance enhancing drugs didn’t provide them with their skills and experience}) authored noticeably lost their “dazzling and spectacularly better than anyone else element” right about when, or a few months after the Balco scandal.

Check the calendar and you will see the incredible coincidences.

Naturally to put into service this form of doping, athletes must collect and also store several units of their own blood, or someone else’s of a similar type, months in advance to competition of interest.

From there they then, usually with a cardiologist’s assistance, transfuse it back into themselves just prior to the event. Transfusions as a form of blood doping have been around for quite a while, as the 1968 Olympic games instance stands testimony to where, in Mexico, a cyclist broke the outdoor single hour cycling record as a result of assistance he received by his cardiologist and several men that possessed the same blood type as himself.

The “game” has moved on considerably since then though.

As mentioned above another popular method of blood doping, is Endogenous Erythrocyte Production Stimulation.

EEPS blood doping is essentially the outcome of a biological process referred to as Erythropoiesis, that is itself normally regulated by tissue oxygenation within the human body.

When hypoxia (a condition in which the body or a region of the body, such as the tissues within muscles, is deprived of an adequate oxygen supply) occurs, sensors within the kidneys are triggered that in turn lead to increased production of the hormone erythropoietin, or EPO.

Now that I refer to this form of blood doping with a reference to EPO it, or aspects of it, will no doubt be recognized a little better. But there is a little more to this form of blood doping than creating a circumstance where tissue is depleted of oxygen.

Stay with me boxing lovers . . . . remember from above? . . . I said that erythrocytes were basically - well for the purpose of this basic discussion anyway - the same as red blood cells, and therefore red blood cells (or erythrocytes) were the most significant to blood oxygenation enhancement.

OK, with that in mind, the above-mentioned EPO then enables more erythrocytes (red blood cells) to be produced within the body.

Usually this takes place within the body’s bone marrow.

Consequently, these extra and plentiful erythrocytes (brought about by hypoxia or the depletion of oxygen in tissue) result in the presence of additional hemoglobin molecules, which as mentioned above happen to greatly aid in the delivery of oxygen to the body's muscles and associated tissues.

Furthermore, all this extra oxygen reaches the hypoxic tissues and then works to alleviate or self regulate the deficiency, and the previously mentioned sensor in the kidneys that originally triggered erythropoiesis then shuts off, and ultimately the extra production of EPO above and beyond normal levels is then halted.

This is, simplistically, what happens when one trains at altitude.

As conditions that create hypoxic states within the body occur at high altitudes where the air is less dense and/or possesses low oxygen concentrations when compared to what is referred to as normobaric conditions.

Under these less dense air conditions, each inhalation the boxer or athlete takes therefore contains less oxygen, and as such there is then far less oxygen available to be transported to the athlete's muscles; ultimately leading to hypoxia, and inducing erythropoiesis . . . . .

Which then (as above-mentioned);

(a) triggers the kidneys to increase production of the hormone erythropoietin, or EPO.

Which then . . . . .

(b) enables more erythrocytes (red blood cells) to be produced within the body.

Which then . . . . .

(c) leads to the presence of additional hemoglobin molecules, which as mentioned above greatly enhance delivery of oxygen to the body's muscles and associated tissues.

This is hypoxia induced erythropoiesis.

This is why boxers train at high altitude and no doubt why 3G stays there at Abel Sanchez' gym, as he is effectively inducing hypoxia and erythropoiesis in a manner that serves his fitness regime and/or blood doping in both an accepted and legal way.

In fact it is the only legal way I know to gain performance advantages that can only be equaled by other methods mentioned here.

When did you last see him tired and breathing heavy during any of his fights and training videos?

But what, if in the true performance enhancing substance culture's form, you actually wanted to experience the benefits of erythropoiesis without inducing and/or “suffering” the fatigue of hypoxia?

Lucky then that erythropoiesis can be induced in two ways: one is by the administration of synthetic erythropoietin and the other is as mentioned above, by the inducement of hypoxic conditions.

Enter synthetic EPO.

This is what the performance enhanced drug and sports world - that (like boxing) really can't directly benefit from traditional steroids and is significantly reliant upon cardiovascular stamina as much, if not more than pure physical strength - has been waiting for.

Initially synthetic EPO was designed and developed as an anti-anemic treatment for patients that had serious renal or kidney failure, cancer and AIDS.

It was also a drug that was used to treat premature babies.

Synthetic EPO usually behaves similarly to the above-mentioned and naturally occurring EPO, and usually it is injected into the athlete several times over a week (the cycle) on a reasonably recurrent basis.

We have all heard of the Olympic and other athletes that have been busted for EPO, so I won’t go into that here, other than to say that it obviously provides benefits that some high profile athletes believed was worth the risk of getting caught for.

Whilst professional sports remains as a well paid and famous career choice for some, performance enhancing drugs will always be seriously big business in the same way that party and other recreational drugs are probably not going anywhere soon.

The above discussion is just a brief insight into the PED subject and how it may apply to boxing; which itself is a great sport that just so happens to be both one of the most grueling and demanding cardiovascular sports there is, and also one of the most highly paid - if you're at the top, calling the shots and dominating.

All of which, for many reasons, make boxing (this includes competitors, managers and promoters) a prime target for the performance enhancing substances and methodologies that I refer to in this discussion.

As such there are other many other forms of performance enhancing substances and artificial oxygen performance enhancing substances (AOCPES) that I haven’t discussed.

For instance consider perfluorochemicals or PFC’s . . . .

As above-mentioned this is another class of artificial oxygen carriers. PFCs, which are basically synthetic liquids within which oxygen can be dissolved.

What's more interesting about them is that oxygen molecules can be dissolved into PFC particles as the particles themselves pass through the lungs via the bloodstream.

Remember what I said above about hemoglobin molecules that exist in the blood - don’t they perform a similar function?

Well yes they do. But check this out.

These PFC particles, like hemoglobin molecules, travel to various other parts of the human body delivering oxygen. But that’s not all.

Not only do PFCs emulate the body's naturally occurring hemoglobin functionality - but they also serve as an “exchange carriage” (my term) within the body, or more specifically the body’s blood by both transporting a greater amount of oxygen molecules and removing a greater amount of carbon dioxide molecules than hemoglobin alone.

All this whilst the hemoglobin is still there doing its job too! (And just imagine if you also did a transfusion at the same time, even without PED assisted blood).

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Just to recap, blood itself consists of platelets, white blood cells, plasma and red blood cells.

The red blood cells (erythrocytes) are the ones we’re most interested in as they're the most relevant to blood oxygenation enhancement and as such they're usually targeted in performance enhancing substance design for all the above-mentioned reasons.

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) travel throughout the human body distributing oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.

Erythrocytes’ red color is solely due to a chemical protein called hemoglobin, and from above that’s the substance that allows them to transport gases; which PFC’s emulate with greater performance.

Finally, with the recap, and as blood travels through our lungs, the oxygen molecules we breath in then attach themselves to the hemoglobin (within the blood in the lungs, just as nicotine does for a smoker), then as blood passes through the body's tissues, the hemoglobin then releases that oxygen directly into the cells; hopefully to ensure our jabs and hooks are accurate, hard, and retrieved as fast as they were thrown.

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PFCs are different to hemoglobin though because of that “exchange carriage” I mentioned above.

As this allows PFC’s to exchange gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide - which are both critical to cardiovascular dominated sports performances, far more rapidly and far more efficiently than the hemoglobin molecule can alone. This is because of the way PFC’s capture and release gases, as it is done by a process referred to as diffusion.

And because PFC’s capture and release gases by a process referred to as diffusion it means that the amount of oxygen transported by PFC’s is directly related to how soluble the gas is that’s actually being transported. Therefore, to increase oxygen delivered to muscles and tissues all one simply has to do is increase the oxygen concentration of the gas being inhaled, and this overcomes a limitation associated with the naturally occurring hemoglobin molecule within our bodies.

Not in the least as each hemoglobin molecule within our bodies is really only equipped with the fixed ability to transport a maximum of only four oxygen molecules at any given time.

Therefore, the naturally occurring hemoglobin molecule within our bodies is - particularly by comparison to PFC’s - seriously limited in its oxygen transfer capabilities by the number of hemoglobin molecules present at any given time.

As you know sometimes I use mechanical engineering and/or automotive terms to explain certain aspects of this sport.

At this juncture it is perhaps appropriate to do the same.

Most are familiar with nitrous oxide and its use within the high performance automotive industry. One reason nitrous oxide instantly adds power is because it supplies its own oxygen molecules; so much so that usually vehicles fitted with nitrous oxide must also be recalibrated so their fuel injection will deliver more fuel when the nitrous oxide switch is thrown “on”.

Like our lungs, the internal combustion engine is basically an air and/or gas pump. But, unlike our body, the internal combustion engine also has an internal combustion cycle (the power stroke that occurs when the fuel is burnt, that subsequently transforms the chemical energy from the fuel into a force that acts on the piston and other rotating assembly components of the engine; resulting in torque) that delivers the torque and/or rotational velocity of the crankshaft that is ultimately harnessed and converted to forward thrust by the vehicle’s additional drive and power train components.

Much performance consideration of the internal combustion engine relies upon getting the gases efficiently into the motor and out.

The delivery of oxygen (or air) is critical to internal combustion engine performance and this is why superchargers, turbocharger-chargers and hi-rise induction systems are popular in American street and other racing cultures; as essentially they’re all either air pumps or air flow assistance devices fitted to the engine.

Injecting the fuel is the easy part; getting the gases in and out and reducing friction (or losses) is not quite so easy - particularly if you're competing at F1 level where things happen fast.

No other performance enhancing system that seeks to deliver seriously large quantities of air to the engine in the performance drive-train or vehicle world provides the instant power advantage that nitrous oxide does without introducing some kind of, additional loss, undesirable characteristic, or other efficiency concern.

The reason why is because nitrous oxide deals with the issue of oxygen delivery at a molecular and (sometimes) liquid level, and in doing so the traditional issues related to air flow, air pumps (super and turbo-chargers) that have been debated at length on various forums simply fall away. By and large this is because the oxygen can then be treated like a fuel and forced in through an injector.

Go for a ride in a properly equipped nitrous oxide vehicle one day when the switch is thrown, and you will see what I mean.

PFC’s, particularly when used in combination with other above-mentioned methods of enhancing oxygen content in the body, can be considered to be the nitrous oxide for the body and as such they're are similar as they not only deal with delivering oxygen to the body at a molecular and (sometimes) liquid (remember PFC’s capture and release gases by a process called diffusion that ensures the amount of oxygen transported by PFC’s is directly related to how soluble the gas {oxygen and carbon dioxide} is that’s actually being transported) level - but also circumvent many of the body’s natural constraints to fatigue and therefore also circumventing constraints to; poor athletic performance, fame and fortune.

This is why performance enhancing substances are here to stay and organizations like USADA that will tailor their scope of investigations as contractually required and requested - regardless of whether it means someone achieving an advantage via the use of a performance enhancing drug remains officially undetected and/or anonymous; whilst the public subscribe to the mantra, or are advised, that PED testing is in place - will remain popular and in business for a far longer period of time than those organizations such as VADA, that will not follow the same approach.

I agree that we need a real solution, but in boxing USADA is not it unless you only want to provide the appearance something is being done.

The only thing that will change it, particularly in boxing, will be when promoters are serious about the PED issue and for that to happen they have to treat it and boxers as a higher priority than profits.

I reckon ecstasy will go out of fashion at dance parties before that.

Don’t hold your breath on either though."




Just give the man his 500$ now , he earned it.

Reply

deepwater2:

Floyd was complaining about his injuries and brittle hands before 2007 and said the end of his career was near. It is now over 7 years later and he is still here. Does he get tested randomly during the year? Does he still take pain killer injections in his hands, (which is illegal in many states)? Is he a candidate for testosterone replacement therapy? His security team is juiced to the gills. His stable of fighters at his gym get caught numerous times. If Floyd can ask questions about other fighters he should have no problem with people asking him these questions.

Reply

oubobcat:

Here is my long standing take on the matter...

Is there an issue with PED's in boxing? There is no question, there is a problem. There are many fighters out there cheating the system using illegal performance enhancing drugs.

However, I will not accuse anyone of doing so unless there is substantive proof that they are doing so. I believe that there are many fighters are there who are clean and doing things the right way. And some of these fighters who are clean have been accused of juicing. To me, that's just not the right thing to do.

If a fighter is caught, they need to be punished. At least in the US, their license needs to be taken away for a considerable amount of time and when they return should be required to go through more substantive tests (at their cost) prior to entering the ring again to prove they are clean. Until the sport starts severely punishing those who cheat the system, the incentive will be out there for those to attempt to cheat. If the punishments are weak, then the incentive to cheat will always be more present.

I also think networks have a responsibility in this. HBO should never have signed off on a big money fight for Gamboa. HBO should not have signed off on Berto fighting Guerrero or Showtime to Berto facing Soto Karass. By giving big paydays to the cheat, that just gives all the more incentive for others to do the same. Take away the big paydays and you will have more fighters thinking long and hard before juicing.

Finally, how about Floyd Mayweather? He has been at the forefront of PED testing and making sure that opponents he faces are clean. But how about when fighters under his promotional banner are caught? Since he is such an out spoken critic on others juicing, shouldn't his company take a strong no nonsense approach to the matter? Yet when two of his fighters were caught they were not only kept by Mayweather Promotions but given valuable tv and PPV dates.

There is a problem with PED's in boxing. I however won't believe or accuse anyone unless there is definitive proof. The sport, networks and promoters all could step up just a little with common sense procedures that could greatly help in eliminating PED's as well from this sport.

Reply

brownsugar:

Fear not fight fans....Tony "The Tiger" Thompson has vowed to step in and continue his prospect spoiling ways by filling in for Chisora and saving the show.



The announcement came early today so Fury might not have had time to respond.

Reply

The Commish:

It's too bad. This could have been a fun fight!

-Randy G.

Reply

thegreyman:

"Bernie fernandez you are a chump!! Golokvin is a creation! Youre a glorified promoter! Sturm, Murray, and Groves can all beat his *** anywhere out of the US!"

You really believe that?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XBw25CrUS-o

Reply

oubobcat:

I am not a fan of Tyson Fury's but actually do kind of feel for him on this. This is now the third time in less than a year a big fight has been postponed on him and the 2nd time it happened with about a week prior to the fight.

If I were Fury, I would move on from Chisora and try to get something else scheduled here soon. Anyway, he already beat Chisora once a few years ago. Tony Thompson called Fury out and a Shannon Briggs fight would garner a lot of attention. There is also Antonio Tarver who is still seeking a big heavyweight fight as well (though Tarver may be holding out hopes for Haye).

The bad news for us fight fans in the US is that AWE pulled their broadcast of the card with the Fury-Chisora fight off. I love the sport and would have loved to have been able to see the other fights on the card.

Reply

brownsugar:

"I have a problem with this whole Pac/Mayw/Cotto era. They're great fighters but the traditions of boxing are being forgotten, swept away. I know this is a rant but here goes...if it's not at the correct weight it's a non-title catchweight match in my mind. Sadly, it seems everything is negotiable these days. Was Cotto-Martinez made at 159? If it was it, wasn't a middleweight title fight and shouldn't be viewed as such. In the same way Ray Leonard didn't really win the lightheavyweight title from Don Lalonde as the Golden Boy was forced to weigh in at 168. If Cotto and Mayweather fight with an upper limit of 156 it's not a middleweight title fight. I read PBF wanted to defend both his 147/154 belts against Maidana? That's impossible - either Maidana has to weight under 147 or under 154. If he's under 147 he's a welter, if he's over he's a lightmiddle. Part of me thinks the whole idea of being a 'champion' of anything is meaningless nowadays. You can set your own weights and still get sanctioned, what exactly is a welterweight anymore? I don't mind the catchweight stuff giving us good matches, but they should not be sanctioned as title fights if they aren't at the proper weight limit. This bull makes me think why don't we just scrap a century of history and classifications and say fighter A is fighting fighter B at whatever weight (fill in the 140-154lb figure) and forget things being for titles or mentioning weight classes? It's virtually where we're at. Rant over!!"

I like to hear you rant Gibola... You bring up some interesting concerns

Reply

oubobcat:

I don't see the comparison's to Ricardo Lopez. Lopez was a different breed to me, a once in a generation special fighter.

To me, Lopez possessed all the attributes of an all time great but never really got the proper recognition due to the weight class he fought in most of his career. He was almost perfect in his ring technique during his prime and rarely got hit. As a matter of fact, some would argue during his prime he was perfect. I can't remember him being hit clean very often during his prime.

I remember a fight back in March of 1997 against Mongkol Chareon. Lopez was dominating as usual but Chareon was tough as nails and would not go away. Anyway, I can't remember which round but it was later in the fight when Chareon caught Lopez with a flush hard punch. I almost fell out of my chair as I could not recall anyone ever landing clean on Lopez until that moment. And the real funny part was Lopez came back to his corner after the round and apologized for getting hit.

Lopez was not only a great defensive fighter but what made him so special was that he was aggressive in so many of his fights. He knew the exact right times to throw, at the correct range and right angles to hand and be unable to be countered by his opponents. He was not bring to watch at all and fought in a style that most others would take a lot of punches. But Lopez almost never got hit clean during his prime.

Not to mention, as pointed out in the article, Lopez also possessed one punch power. He was as close to a "perfect" fighter as they come.

Rigo is very good but he is no Lopez. Then again, I don't think we will ever see another fighter like Lopez again.

Reply

brownsugar:

"A lonely division. I like it.



John Henry Lewis was often dismissed as a powder-puff puncher. I'm guessing that he would have thrown more punches with bad intentions if not for a terrible incident that happened when he was just 16 years old.



In his seventh pro fight, in Prescott, Arizona, Lewis scored a third round knockout over a 21-year-old opponent named Sam Terrin. Knocked to the canvas after absorbing a punch to the jaw -- and with his wife looking on -- Terrin never got up and was declared dead a few minutes later. Lewis was taken into custody awaiting the coroner's report, standard procedure back in those days.



The coroner determined that Terrin had a defective heart, but this had to be an emotionally traumatic incident for Lewis, one that weighed heavily on his mind each time that he entered the squared circle."






Wow this topic is a cornucopia of boxing trivia...

Reply

ArneK.:

A lonely division. I like it.

John Henry Lewis was often dismissed as a powder-puff puncher. I'm guessing that he would have thrown more punches with bad intentions if not for a terrible incident that happened when he was just 16 years old.

In his seventh pro fight, in Prescott, Arizona, Lewis scored a third round knockout over a 21-year-old opponent named Sam Terrin. Knocked to the canvas after absorbing a punch to the jaw -- and with his wife looking on -- Terrin never got up and was declared dead a few minutes later. Lewis was taken into custody awaiting the coroner's report, standard procedure back in those days.

The coroner determined that Terrin had a defective heart, but this had to be an emotionally traumatic incident for Lewis, one that weighed heavily on his mind each time that he entered the squared circle.

Reply

miguel1:

This theme is an even bigger topic over in MMA, where they have been dishing out suspensions like McDonalds applications. One of the hot topics is the TRT or Testosterone Replacement Therapy, but what I see there I think applies across the board.

One well known, now suspended MMA athlete (Chael Sonnen) said about TRT that he could 'die' without the therapy. Now the athlete is probably complicit, but if a doctor told him that and then gave him the therapy, then you are entering into a question of medical ethics.

How in the world can a doctor look at a trained, professional athlete who may be low in natural test or tired for a few days and diagnose that he could die? Most doctors would prescribe rest, a few days of from training, and you bounce back. This guys doctor shot him up to 14 times the normal human level. That is therapy?

And the entire medical community is complicit, because doctors don't usually call each other out on this sort of stuff.

So the solution would be to allow it all. If you want to drink mule **** because it makes you stronger, go ahead. Have the doctors watch over the health of the users and educate them on the repercussions, but let them shoot ape blood directly into the back of their eye if they want to. I dont know, as someone pointed out, there are a lot of enhancements and things that are still legal

Reply

Froggy:

I agree 100% I don't care if one guy comes in 50 pounds under the limit, as long as that is his choice and his opponent is allowed to weigh-in at the maximum for that weight class !

Reply

The Commish:

Oh and Billy, welcome to the site. Hopefully, you'll chime in here frequently on all of the posts on our favorite sport.

-Randy G.

Reply

gibola:

Hi there.



Point taken.



If the upper weight for a Cotto-Mayweather is 160 and they both weight in 152, hell, if they weigh in 142, no problem, they could have weighted 160 if they chose and it's a middleweight fight if one is the legitimate middleweight champ. But saying a middleweight in a title fight can't weigh over 155 or 156 is the problem. It's no longer at the middleweight limit and can't be for the title. We need to be careful or we'll have welterweight champions redefining their weight class as 'up to 144' if you want a title shot. If they weren't sanctioned as legit title fights you'd have some defence against it. As the bodies sanction everything - Pacman/PBF/Cotto can do what they want and that's wrong. If Cotto fights Andy Lee with a 155lb limit is that a middleweight title fight? Not to me. Call me old-fashioned but if both guys aren't free to weight 160 it sure as hell isn't a middleweight title fight. Hagler v Leonard/Hearns/Duran all at 160. None of this rubbish.

Reply

Radam G:

For the record, anything below a weight division is in the division. New Jack attitude is the problem, not the weights and so-called catchweights.



Bob FitzSimmon was heavyweight at between 155lbs and 172lbs. Never was he a real heavyweight if somebody insists that he has to be over 175lbs for the division. Henry Armstrong won the welterweight title at 138lbs. So was he really a welterweight? Tommy Burns fought as the heavyweight champion of the world at between 162lbs to 180lbs. So was he really a heavyweight? When Da Manny beat Margarito for the light middleweight title, Da Manny was 144lbs. So was he really a light middle?



Fans and fanfaronades are bytching a lot about nothing. Boxing is always the way it has always been -- negotiable and corrupted and crooked as a banana. In other words, it is fine as usual. And making a lot of peeps do as usual: bytch, complain and go apesyet. Hehe! Holla!

Reply

gibola:

I have a problem with this whole Pac/Mayw/Cotto era. They're great fighters but the traditions of boxing are being forgotten, swept away. I know this is a rant but here goes...if it's not at the correct weight it's a non-title catchweight match in my mind. Sadly, it seems everything is negotiable these days. Was Cotto-Martinez made at 159? If it was it, wasn't a middleweight title fight and shouldn't be viewed as such. In the same way Ray Leonard didn't really win the lightheavyweight title from Don Lalonde as the Golden Boy was forced to weigh in at 168. If Cotto and Mayweather fight with an upper limit of 156 it's not a middleweight title fight. I read PBF wanted to defend both his 147/154 belts against Maidana? That's impossible - either Maidana has to weight under 147 or under 154. If he's under 147 he's a welter, if he's over he's a lightmiddle. Part of me thinks the whole idea of being a 'champion' of anything is meaningless nowadays. You can set your own weights and still get sanctioned, what exactly is a welterweight anymore? I don't mind the catchweight stuff giving us good matches, but they should not be sanctioned as title fights if they aren't at the proper weight limit. This bull makes me think why don't we just scrap a century of history and classifications and say fighter A is fighting fighter B at whatever weight (fill in the 140-154lb figure) and forget things being for titles or mentioning weight classes? It's virtually where we're at. Rant over!!

Reply

brownsugar:

"bSug



Awesome read my man. Im so psyched for this fight, i just hope GGG haters will give credit when he stops the real deal Geale."




A stoppage would be nice BFF, unless Geale does something totally different I cant see any other outcome....

..But I've yet to see Geale fight a different style. ....anyway Im looking forward to the fight as well.

Reply
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